CASE STUDY RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PDF

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the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. This definition thus cites the topic of “decisions” as the major focus of case studies. PDF | On Sep 22, , Simon Phelan and others published Case study research: design and methods. CASE. STUDY. RESEARCH. Design and Methods. Second Edition. Robert K. Yin . Applied Social Research Methods Series. VolumeS. ~ SAGE Publications.


Case Study Research Design And Methods Pdf

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YA. S. Yin, Robert K. Case study research: design and methods / Robert K. Yin. Fifth edition. India. 3. Preparing to Collect Case Study Evidence;. Collect. $ Case Study Research. Design and Methods. (, Second edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage). By Robert K. Yin. Summary. General characteristics. ▫ When to use . Case study research: design and methods, 4th ed, Robert Yin. Simon Phelan. This art icle was downloaded by: [ The Universit y of Nort ham pt on] On: 07 July.

Whilst the case study is often seen as synonymous with the qualitative turn, this research design is one that targets no particular data collection method. This is then again supported via expert case examples, highlighting the complementary nature of case studies to other research designs.

The book has seen significant developments following previous reviews, one of which has seen the practical exercises updated with the growth of the field. That being said, the sheer number of examples given means that specific features if looked for can be found. What is most notable about this text is the manner in which it is communicated.

Downloaded by [The University of Northampton] at In addition, the author includes personal insights within the research process, providing a window into his understanding of the topic and the development of the book from his perspective.

For this reason the text is highly recommendable to undergraduates or novice case study practitioners as well as academics well versed in the research process.

References Creswell, J. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches 3rd ed.

Hartley, J. Case study research. Symon Eds. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches is aimed at those who are embarking on research in the field of education and who are seeking guidance in the early stages of a research career. The editor encourages a view of research as an iterative process and a journey into the field of education. The book is structured according to the phases of a research project. In response to the many cries that case study work fails to be sufficiently rigorous or generalisable, Yin offers four critical conditions: This is supported throughout the text as more than 50 exemplar case studies are used to illustrate the desired learning within each chapter.

Whilst the case study is often seen as synonymous with the qualitative turn, this research design is one that targets no particular data collection method. This is then again supported via expert case examples, highlighting the complementary nature of case studies to other research designs.

The book has seen significant developments following previous reviews, one of which has seen the practical exercises updated with the growth of the field. That being said, the sheer number of examples given means that specific features if looked for can be found.

What is most notable about this text is the manner in which it is communicated. Downloaded by [The University of Northampton] at In addition, the author includes personal insights within the research process, providing a window into his understanding of the topic and the development of the book from his perspective.

For this reason the text is highly recommendable to undergraduates or novice case study practitioners as well as academics well versed in the research process. References Creswell, J.

Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches 3rd ed. Hartley, J.

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Case study research. Symon Eds.

Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches is aimed at those who are embarking on research in the field of education and who are seeking guidance in the early stages of a research career. Fourth, see Chapter 2 for more. Fifth, the evidence. In fact, the contrast between quantitative and qualitative evidence case study may be a "meta-evaluation"-a study of an evaluation study does not distinguish the various research strategies.

Note that, as analogous N. Smith, ; Stake, Whatever the application, one constant theme examples, some experiments such as studies of psychophysical perceptions is that program sponsors--rather than research investigators alone-may and some survey questions such as those seeking categorical rather than have the prominent role in defining the evaluation questions and relevant data numerical responses rely on qUalitative, and not quantitative, evidence.

Likewise, historical research can include enonnous amounts of quantitative And, finally, yes, certain journalistic efforts can qualify as case studies. Some qualitative research follows ethnographic methods and seeks to satisfy two conditions: However, ethnographic research does This chapter has introduced the importance of the case study as a research not always produce case studies for example, see the brief ethnographies in strategy.

The case study, like other research strategies, is a way of investigating G. Jacobs, , nor are case studies limited to these two conditions. Instead, an empirical topic by following a set of prespecified procedures. These case studies can be based on any mix of quantitative and qUalitative evidence. In addition, case studies need not always include direct, detailed observations The chapter also has attempted to distinguish the case study from alternative as a source of evidence.

Some situations may have no clearly preferred strategy, as the but on the basis of wholly different philosophical beliefs e. Although some believe that these philosophical beliefs are irrecon- gator may draw according to a given situation. Now assume that you were actually able to answer these BOX 3 questions with sufficient evidence i. How would you justify, to a colleague, the significance of your findings? Would you have advanced some major theory?

Would you have discovered some- Although public memory of President Richard M. Nixon's resignation has thing rare?

Case study research: design and methods

The book is dramatic and sus- penseful, relies on solid journalistic methods, and serendipitously represents a 3. Locate a re- i, common design for case studies.

Describe the ways in which the findings of this study are Nixon administration more generally. Rather, the case is the "coverup," a significant. Does it advance some major theory?

Has it discovered something rare? Bernstein and Woodward continually confront the reader with two "how" and "why" 4. Obtain a copy of a case questions: How did the coverup occur, and why did it occur? Neither is study designed for teaching purposes e. Identify the specific ways in which this type of "teaching" case is fact, each piece adding up curiously and then potently to an explanation for the different than research case studies.

Does the teaching case cite primary documents, coverup. Does the teaching case have a conclusion? What Establishing the how and why of a complex human situation is a classic appears to be the main objective of the teaching case? If the case involves a significant public event and an appealing 5.

Defining different types ofcase studies usedfor research purposes. Compare the situations in which these different types of case studies would be most applicable, and then name a case study you would like to conduct. Would it be explanatory, descriptive, or exploratory? Finally, the chapter has discussed some of the major criticisms of case study research and has suggested that these criticisms are misdirected.

However, we must all work hard to overcome the problems of doing case stody research, NOTE including the recognition that some of us were not meant, by skill or dispo- sition, to do such research in the first place. Case study research is remarkably 1.

Robert Stake has yet another approach for defining case studies. He considers them hard, even though case studies have traditionally been considered to be "soft" not to be ,"8 melhodological choice but a choice of object to be studied. Paradoxically, the "softer" a research strategy, the harder it is to do.

This definition is too broad. Every study of entities qualifying as objects e. Defining a case study question. Develop a question that would be the rationale for a case study you ntight conduct. Instead of doing a case study, now imagine that you could only do a history, a survey, or an experiment but not a case study in order to answer this question.

What aspects of the question, if any, could not be answered through these other research strategies? What would be the distinctive advantage of doing a case study to answer this question? Name a topic you thiok is worthy of making the subject of a case study.

Where to get the book "Case Study Research Design and Methods" by Robert K Yin?

One pitfall to be avoided, however, is to consider case study designs to be A research design is the logic that links the data to be collected and the a subset or variant of the research designs used for other strategies, such as conclusIOns to be drawn to the initial questions of a study. Every emp'. For the longest time, scholars incorrectly thought that the case.

How the recognized as something different. The book. In identifying the research strategy for your research project, Chapter I has shown. The next task is to design your case study. UnlIke other research strategies, a comprehensive "catalog" of re- mately, to its conclusions. Colloquially, a research design is an action plan s. There are no textbooks for getting from here to there, where here may be defined as the initial set of?

Between "here" and ''there'' may be found a number tion of dIfferent stimuli or experimental conditions, or the identification of of major steps, including the collection and analysis of relevant data. SImIlarly, there are not even textbooks like the well-known volumes guides the investigator in the process of collecting. As for the second component, each proposition di- rects attention to something that should be examined within the scope of the Another way of thinking about a research design is as a "blueprinf' of study.

How and why do organizations data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to analyze the results see collaborate with one another to provide joint services for example, a manu- F. Borum, personal communication, Copenhagen Business School, Copen- facturer and a retail store collaborating to sell certain computer products?

These "how" and "why" questions, capturing what you are really mterested Note that a research design is much more than a work plan. In this sense, a research design what you should study. Only if you are forced to state s. As a simple will you move in the right direction. If you tent of specifIc benefIts to each organization.

This is a flaw in any propositions. The outcome could have been and the other research strategies alike-in which a tOPIC IS the subject of avoided if you had developed an appropriate research design in the fIrst place. Consider the analogy in BOX 4 for exploratory case studies. Can you imagine how you would ask for support from Queen Isabella to do your For case studies, fIve components of a research design are especially important: Unit of anlliysis.

This third component is related to the fundamental. For instance, m the ClasSiC case study, a 3. Jennifer Platt a, b has. In each situation, an individual person is the case bemg studIed, study questions. This ftrst component has already been described in Chap- and the individual is the primary unit of analysis. Information about each ter I.

Although the substance of your questions will vary, Chapter I sug- gested that the form of the question-in terms of "who," "what," "where," relevant individual would be collected, and several SUC? The book, also a best-seller, is about the development of a new his "exploration" of the New World, he had to have some reasons for asking minicomputer produced by Data General Corporation, intended to compete for three ships Why not one?

Why not five? Why not south and then east? He also had This easy-to-read book describes how Data General s engmeenng team some mistaken criteria for recognizing the Indies when he actuallyencoun- invented and developed the new computer.

The book begins with the initial tered them. In short, his exploration began with some rationale and direction conceptualization of the computer and ends when the engineering team relin- even if his initial assumptions might later have been proved wrong Wilford: However, the book also exploratory case study.

Is the case study about the minicomputer, or. Without such propositions, an investigator might he tempted to dynamics topiC. Because the book is not an acadenuc study. For example, the proposi- to, nor does it. The more a study contains specific propoSItions, the more it will stay within feasible limits. Case studies have been done about decisions, research design and data collection strategy.

Selection of the appropnate umt about programs, about the implementation process, and about organizational of analysis results from your accurately specifying the primary research change: Beware of these types over another, your questions are probably either too vague or too numerous-- of topIcs-none IS easIly defined in tenns of the heginning or end points of and you may have trouble conducting your case study.

Any case study of such a program would therefore have case studies of small groups for another example, confusIDg an IDnovauon to confront these conditions in delineating the unit of analysis. Peter Drucker has written a provocative essay about 1 in Chapter 1 of this book and Tally: OIY Smgapore,Is 10 fact a case study of Singapore's critical li' th The fourth and fifth components have been the least well developed in case make the cO,? The Apple computer factory ex;:: Linking data to propositions can be done any number of ways, but none These two cases show how the definition of the main and embedded.

The main unit of analysis is likely at the level being addressed by the main study questions. One promising approach for case studies is the idea of "pattern-matching" described by Donald Campbell , whereby several pieces of information from the same case may be related to some theoretical proposition. To reduce the confusion, one good practice is to discuss the state law limiting the speed to 55 miles per hour.

If the two potential patterns are outsIde It the context for the case study Similarly I'fth. All of these types of questions need to be This article also illustrates the problems in dealing with the fifth compo- nent, the criteriafor interpreting a study'sfindings. Campbell's data matched I 1 "-. This role of theory deVelopment, prior to the conduct of any actual obse Uons, data collection, is one point of difference between case studies and related Campbell, As a result, students - II "- IJ.

Figure 2.

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An Example of Pattern-Matching Theory development. Using a case study on the implementation of a new management information system MIS as an example Markus, , the one pattern much better than they matched the other. But how close does a simplest ingredient of a theory is a statement such as the following: Note that Campbell did not do any statistical test to make the comparison.

Nor would a statistical test The case study will show why implemeniation only succeeded when the organi- have been possible, because each data point in the pattern was a single zation was able to re-structure itself, and not just overlay the new MIS on the number-the number of fatalities for that year-for which one could not old organizational structure.

Currently, there IS no precise way of setting the criteria for interpreting these types of findings,. The statement presents the nutshell of a theory of MIS implementation- One hopes that the different patterns are sufficiently contrasting that as in that is, that organizational restructuring is needed to make MIS implementa- Campbell's case the findings can be interpreted in terms of comparing at tion work.

Using the same case, an additional ingredient might be the following statement: A research design should include five components. Although the current state of the art does not provide detailed guidance on the last The case study will also show why the simple replacement of key persons was two, the complete research design should not only indicate what data are not sufficient for successful implementation. Using a Metaphor to You can see that, as these two initial ingredients are elaborated, the stated Develop Deseriptive Theory ideas will increasingly cover the questions, propositions, units of analysis, logic connecting data to propositions, and criteria for interpreting the find- Whether four countries-the American colonies, Russia, England, and ings-that is, the five components of the needed research design.

In this sense, France-all underwent similar courses of events during their major political the complete research design embodies a "theory" of what is being studied. Tracing and analyzing these events IS don. Then, the complete research design will The "cross-case" analysis reveals major similarities: The author If you are interested in international followed by a false tranquility, to describe the ebb and flow of events m the economic development, for instance, Peter Drucker's ''The Changed World four revolutions.

Economy" is an exceptional source of theories and hypotheses. Drucker claims that the world economy has changed significantly from the past. Nevertheless, as noted earher financial markets and the real economy of goods and services.

Each different study would likely call for a successful. Drucker's theoretical framework would provide gUidance for designing these studies and even for collecting relevant data.

Illustrative types of theories. In general, to overcome the barriers to the- In other situations, the appropriate theory may be a descriptive theory see ory development, you should try tu prepare for your case study by?

Ideas WIth col- realistic range of topics that might be considered a "complete" description of leagues or teachers; and asking yourself challengmg quesl10ns about what what is to be studied, and c the likely topic s that will be the essence of the you are studying, why you are proposing to do the study, and what you hope description.

Good answers to these questions, including the rationales under- to learn as a result of the study. For instance, n? Other types of theories for you to consider note. Such a knowledge base does not lend itself to the development of good include the foIlowing: I behavIOr.

As another example, a common topic of Figure 2. Making Inferences: In this situation, the development of a theory of how a program is supposed to work is essential to the design of the evaluation but has been commonly underemphasized in the past Bickman, According is commonly recognized because research investigators have ready access to to Bickrnan, analysts have frequently confused the theory of the program formulas for determining the confidence with which generalizations can be e.

Wberepolicymak- universe and sample. Moreover, this is the most common way of generalizmg ers want to know the desired substantive steps e. This mismatch can be avoided by giving closer A fatal flaw in doing case studies is to conceive of statistical generalization attention to the substantive theory. This is because cases are not "sampling units" and should not be chosen for this reason.

Generalizing from case study to theory. Theory development does not individual case srudies are to be selected as a laboratory investigator selects the topic of a new experiment. Multiple cases, in this sense, should be only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study. The ap- considered like multiple experiments or multiple surveys. Under these propriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of circumstances, the method of generalization is "analytic generalization," in the case study results will occur.

This role of theory has been characterized which a previously developed theory is used as a template with which to throughout this book as "analytic generalization" and has been contrasted compare the empirical results of the case study.

Iftwo or more cas,: The empmcal results tion. In statistical generalization, an inference is made about a population Analytic generalization can be used whether your case study involves one or universe on the basis of empirical data collected about a sample. This is or several cases, which shall be later referenced as single-case or multiple-case shown as a Level One ['lference in Figure 2. The main point at this juncture is that you should try to aim toward analytic generalization in doing case studies, and you should avoid thinking in such confusing terms as "the sample of cases" or the "small sample size of cases," as if a single case study were like a single In other words, draft caM Because of the imPOrtance of this distinction between the two ways of generalizing, you will find repeated examples and discussion throughout the Rather than resisting such a requirement, a good case study investigator should make the effort to develop this theoretical framework, no matter rellabUflJr The use of theory, in doing case studies, not only is an immense aid in defining the Figure 2.

Concepts that have been offered for these tests include trust- worthiness, Credibility, conf1flDability, and data dependability U. For case studies, an Important revelallon. IS that the several tactics to be used in dealing with these tests should be applIed throughout the i.

In this is to have the draft case study report reviewed by key informants a procedure sense, "design work" actually continues beyond the initial design plans. Construct Validity Internal Validity This fIrst test is especially problematic in case study research. Me an example such bell, Numerous "threats" to validity have been identifIed, maInly as studying "neighborhood change"-a common case stody topic.

However, because so many textbooks already Over the years, concerns have arisen over how certain urban neighborhoods cover this topic, only two points need to be made here. However, without any prior speci- studies, in which an investigator is trying to determine whether event x led fIcation ofthe slgmfIcant, operational events that constitute "change," areader to event y.The methodological differences between these two views are shift might in fact be justifiable, but it should not come as a surprise to the revealed by the different rationales underlying the replication as opposed to investigator.

Note that this logic is inapplicable to descriptive or Neighborhood change can indeed cover a wide variety of phenomena: Continue with Google. In all of these situations, the distinctive need for more difficult questions commonly neglected by available research texts.

Researc h design: Drucker's theoretical framework would provide gUidance for designing these studies and even for collecting relevant data. Has it discovered something rare? This role of theory deVelopment, prior to the conduct of any actual obse