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Electrical Measurements and Measuring Instruments eBook: J. Amarnath & Pannala Krishna Murthy S Kamakshaiah: abromishico.cf: site Store. Philosophy of Measurement: Methods of measurement, Measurement system, Classification of instrument system, Characteristic of instrument and. Units,Dimensions and StandardsMKS and rationalised MKSA system, SI units, Standards of EMF, Resistance, Capacitance and inductance, Systematic errors.
Electrodynamic, Thermocouple electrostatic and rectifier type ammeters and voltmeters, Electrodynamic wattmeter, Three phase wattmeter, Power in three phase system, Errors and remedies in wattmeter and energy meter.
Instrument transformer and their application in the extension of instrument range, Introduction to measurement of speed, Frequency and power factor. Measurement of Parameter: Different methods of measuring low, Medium and high resistances, Measurement of inductance and capacitance with the help of A.
Polar type and co-ordinate type A. Magnetic Measurement: Ballistic galvanometer, Flux meter, Determination of hysteresis loop, Measurement of iron losses. Digital Measurement of Electrical Quantities: Concept of digital measurement, Block diagram study of digital voltmeter, Frequency meter, Power analyzer and harmonics analyzer, Electronic multimeter.
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: Chapter8 Cathode Ray Oscilloscope 8 1 to 8. Chapter 2 Analog Measurement of Electrical Quantities 2 1 to 2 Chapter 3 Instrument Transformers and Other Instruments 31 to 3. Describe the functional elements of an instrument with its block diagram. And illustrate them with pressure gauge, pressure thermometer and DArsonval galvanometer. Draw the various blocks and explain their functions. Discuss in detail the various static and dynamic characteristics of a measuring system.
Its reliability, stability, and ease of operation make it suitable as a general purpose laboratory instrument. The heart of the CRO is a cathode-ray tube shown schematically in Fig. The cathode ray is a beam of electrons which are emitted by the heated cathode negative electrode and accelerated toward the fluorescent screen. The assembly of the cathode, intensity grid, focus grid, and accelerating anode positive electrode is called an electron gun.
Its purpose is to generate the electron beam and control its intensity and focus. Between the electron gun and the fluorescent screen are two pair of metal plates - one oriented to provide horizontal deflection of the beam and one pair oriented ot give vertical deflection to the beam. These plates are thus referred to as the horizontal and vertical deflection plates.
Electrical Measurements & Measuring Instruments
The combination of these two deflections allows the beam to reach any portion of the fluorescent screen. Wherever the electron beam hits the screen, the phosphor is excited and light is emitted from that point.
This coversion of electron energy into light allows us to write with points or lines of light on an otherwise darkened screen. The signal applied to the verical plates is thus displayed on the screen as a function of time. The horizontal axis serves as a uniform time scale.
The linear deflection or sweep of the beam horizontally is accomplished by use of a sweep generator that is incorporated in the oscilloscope circuitry. The voltage output of such a generator is that of a sawtooth wave as shown in Fig. Application of one cycle of this voltage difference, which increases linearly with time, to the horizontal plates causes the beam to be deflected linearly with time across the tube face.
When the voltage suddenly falls to zero, as at points a b c , etc The horizontal deflection of the beam is repeated periodically, the frequency of this periodicity is adjustable by external controls.
To obtain steady traces on the tube face, an internal number of cycles of the unknown signal that is applied to the vertical plates must be associated with each cycle of the sweep generator. Thus, with such a matching of synchronization of the two deflections, the pattern on the tube face repeats itself and hence appears to remain stationary. The persistance of vision in the human eye and of the glow of the fluorescent screen aids in producing a stationary pattern.
In addition, the electron beam is cut off blanked during flyback so that the retrace sweep is not observed. In general, the instrument is operated in the following manner.
The signal to be displayed is amplified by the vertical amplifier and applied to the verical deflection plates of the CRT. A portion of the signal in the vertical amplifier is applied to the sweep trigger as a triggering signal. The sweep trigger then generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the triggering signal. This pulse turns on the sweep generator, initiating the sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave is amplified by the horizontal amplifier and applied to the horizontal deflection plates.
Usually, additional provisions signal are made for appliying an external triggering signal or utilizing the 60 Hz line for triggering. Also the sweep generator may be bypassed and an external signal applied directly to the horizontal amplifier. CRO Controls : The controls available on most oscilloscopes provide a wide range of operating conditions and thus make the instrument especially versatile.
Since many of these controls are common to most oscilloscopes a brief description of them follows. Focus: Focus the spot or trace on the screen. Intensity: Regulates the brightness of the spot or trace. Sensitivity: Selects the sensitivity of the vertical amplifier in calibrated steps. Variable Sensitivity: Provides a continuous range of sensitivities between the calibrated steps.
Normally the sensitivity is calibrated only when the variable knob is in the fully clockwise position. Selecting dc couples the input directly to the amplifier; selecting ac send the signal through a capacitor before going to the amplifier thus blocking any constant component. Calibrated position is fully clockwise.
Position: Controls horizontal position of trace on screen. Horizontal Variable: Controls the attenuation reduction of signal applied to horizontal aplifier through Ext.
Electrical Measurements & Measuring Instruments
Coupling: Selects whether triggering occurs at a specific dc or ac level. Source: Selects the source of the triggering signal. LINE - 60 cycle triger Level: Selects the voltage point on the triggering signal at which sweep is triggered.
It also allows automatic auto triggering of allows sweep to run free free run. The lower jack is grounded to the case.
Horizontal Input: A pair of jacks for connecting an external signal to the horizontal amplifier. The lower terminal is graounted to the case of the oscilloscope. External Tigger Input: Input connector for external trigger signal.
Out: Provides amplitude calibrated square waves of 25 and millivolts for use in calibrating the gain of the amplifiers. Sensitivity is variable.
Range of sweep is variable. Operating Instructions: Before plugging the oscilloscope into a wall receptacle, set the controls as follows: a Power switch at off b Intensity fully counter clockwise c Vertical centering in the center of range d Horizontal centering in the center of range e Vertical at 0.
Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation eBook & Notes
Turn power on. Do not advance the Intensity Control.The lower terminal is graounted to the case of the oscilloscope. His research interests are experimental particle physics and astroparticle physics. Classify the standards of measurement? Resistance Measurements Method of measuring low, Medium and high resistance - Sensitivity of Wheatstone's bridge - Carey-Foster's bridge, Kelvin's double bridge for measuring low resistance, Measurement of high resistance - Loss of charge method.
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